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Varying Permeability Model (VPM) References

Primary Modeling References:

Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1984. Decompression theory: A dynamic critical-volume hypothesis. In: Bachrach A.J. and Matzen, M.M. eds. Underwater physiology VIII: Proceedings of the eighth symposium on underwater physiology. Undersea Medical Society, Bethesda, 131-146.

Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1986. On the use of a bubble formation model to calculate diving tables. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 57:149-156.

Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1989. On the use of a bubble formation model to calculate nitrogen and helium diving tables. In: Paganelli, C.V. and Farhi, L.E. eds. Physiological functions in special environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, 95-108.

Yount, D.E., Maiken, E.B., and Baker, E.C. 2000. Implications of the Varying Permeability Model for Reverse Dive Profiles. In: Lang, M.A. and Lehner, C.E. (eds.). Proceedings of the Reverse Dive Profiles Workshop. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. pp. 29-61.

VPM Research and Development References:

D’Arrigo, J.S. 1978. Improved method for studying the surface chemistry of bubble formation. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 49:358-361.

Kunkle, T.D. 1979. Bubble nucleation in supersaturated fluids. Univ. of Hawaii Sea Grant Technical Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-TR-80-01. Pp. 108.

Paganelli, C.V., Strauss, R.H., and Yount, D.E. 1977. Bubble formation within decompressed hen’s eggs. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48:48-49.

Strauss, R.H. 1974. Bubble formation in gelatin: Implications for prevention of decompression sickness. Undersea Biomed. Res. 1:169-174.

Strauss, R.H. and Kunkle, T.D. 1974. Isobaric bubble growth: A consequence of altering atmospheric gas. Science. 186:443-444.

Yount, D.E. and Kunkle, T.D. 1975. Gas nucleation in the vicinity of solid hydrophobic spheres. Journal of Applied Physics. 46:4484-4486.

Yount, D.E. and Strauss, R.H. 1976. Bubble formation in gelatin: A model for decompression sickness. J. Appl. Phys. 47:5081-5089.

Yount, D.E., Kunkle, T.D., D’Arrigo, J.S., Ingle, F.W., Yeung, C.M., and Beckman, E.L. 1977. Stabilization of gas cavitation nuclei by surface-active compounds. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48:185-191.

Yount, D.E. 1979. Skins of varying permeability: a stabilization mechanism for gas cavitation nuclei. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65:1429-1439.

Yount, D.E., Yeung, C.M., and Ingle, F.W. 1979. Determination of the radii of gas cavitation nuclei by filtering gelatin. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65:1440-1450.

Yount, D.E. 1979. Application of a bubble formation model to decompression sickness in rats and humans. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 50:44-50.

Yount, D.E. 1979. Multiple inert-gas bubble disease: a review of the theory. In: Lambertsen, C.J. and Bornmann, R.C. eds. Isobaric Inert Gas Counterdiffusion. Undersea Medical Society, Bethesda, 90-125.

Yount, D.E. and Lally, D.A. 1980. On the use of oxygen to facilitate decompression. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 51:544-550.

Yount, D.E. 1981. Application of a bubble formation model to decompression sickness in fingerling salmon. Undersea Biomed. Res. 8:199-208.

Yount, D.E. and Yeung, C.M. 1981. Bubble formation in supersaturated gelatin: a further investigation of gas cavitation nuclei. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69:702-708.

Yount, D.E. 1982. On the evolution, generation, and regeneration of gas cavitation nuclei. J.Acoust. Soc. Am. 71:1473-1481.

Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1983. On the use of a cavitation model to calculate diving tables. In: Hoyt, J.W., ed. Cavitation and multiphase flow forum-1983. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 65-68.

Yount, D.E. 1983. A model for microbubble fission in surfactant solutions. J. Colloid and Interface Science 91:349-360.

Yount, D.E., Gillary, E.W., and Hoffman, D.C. 1984. A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76:1511-1521.

Yount, D.E. 1997. On the elastic properties of the interfaces that stabilize gas cavitation nuclei. J. Colloid and Interface Science 193:50-59.

Additional Decompression and Related References:

Albano, G. 1970. Principles and Observations on the Physiology of the Scuba Diver, English translation: ONR Report DR-150, Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Arlington, Virginia.

Baker, E.C. 1998. Understanding M-values. Immersed. Vol. 3, No. 3, 23-27.

Baker, E.C. 1998. Clearing up the confusion about deep stops. Immersed. Vol. 3, No. 4, 23-31.

Bennett PB, Elliott DH, eds. 1993. The Physiology and Medicine of Diving. London: WB Saunders.

Bühlmann, AA. 1984. Decompression-Decompression Sickness. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Bühlmann, A.A. 1995. Tauchmedizin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Cowley, J.R.M., Allegra, C., and Lambertsen, C.J. 1979. Measurement of subcutaneous tissue pressure during superficial isobaric gas counter-diffusion. J. Appl. Physiol.:Respir. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 47:224-227.

Gerth, W.A. and Hemmingsen, E.A. 1976. Gas supersaturation thresholds for spontaneous cavitation in water with gas equilibration pressures up to 570 atm. Z. Naturforsch. 31A:1711-1716.

Hamilton RW, Rogers RE, Powell MR, Vann RD. 1994. Development and validation of no-stop decompression procedures for recreational diving: The DSAT Recreational Dive Planner. Santa Ana, CA: Diving Science and Technology Corp.

Harvey, E.N., Barnes, D.K., McElroy, W.D., Whiteley, A.H., Pease, D.C., and Cooper, K.W. 1944. Bubble formation in animals. I. Physical factors. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 24:1-22.

Hennessy, T.R. and Hempleman H.V. 1977. An examination of the critical released gas volume concept in decompression sickness. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 197:299-313.

Hills, B.A. 1966. A thermodynamic and kinetic approach to decompression sickness. Doctoral thesis, The university of Adelaide, Australia.

Hills, B.A. 1977. Decompression Sickness. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Jablonski, J. and Baker, E.C. 1999. Taking cave diving to the limit. Immersed. Vol. 4, No. 3, 29-33.

Kidd, D.J., Stubbs, R.A., and Weaver, R.S. 1971. Comparative approaches to prophylactic decompression. In: Lambertsen, C.J., ed. Underwater physiology: Proceedings of the fourth symposium on underwater physiology. Academic Press, New York, 167-177.

Kozlov, M.M. and Markin, V.S. 1990. Elastic properties of membranes: monolayers, bilayers, vesicles. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 138:332-345.

LeMessurier, D.H. and Hills, B.A. 1965. Decompression Sickness: A Study of Diving Techniques in the Torres Strait. Hvaldradets Skrifter 48:54-84.

Maiken, E.B. 1995. "Bubble Decompression Strategies." tek95 Diving Technology Conference.

Pyle RL. 1996. The importance of deep safety stops: Rethinking ascent patterns from decompression dives. DeepTech. 5:64; Cave Diving Group Newsletter. 121:2-5.

Schreiner, H.R. and Kelley, P.L. 1971. A pragmatic view of decompression. In: Lambertsen, C.J., ed. Underwater physiology: Proceedings of the fourth symposium on underwater physiology. Academic Press, New York, 205-219.

Workman, R.D. 1965. Calculation of decompression schedules for nitrogen-oxygen and heliumoxygen dives. Research Report 6-65. U.S. Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Washington, D.C.